Campaign for Sanctions and Divestment against apartheid South Africa


This is just a beginning.  I hope to compile a more complete list of references for future researchers.  Some of the following links are also available from my bibliography page.


On November 11, 2002, a lawsuit was filed against twenty-two U.S. and European companies on behalf of victims of apartheid.  The lawsuit, Khulumani et al v. Barclays et al., was filed in federal court in the Eastern District of New York.  U.S. defendant companies include ChevronTexaco, Citigroup, ExxonMobil, Fluor, Ford, General Motor, IBM and J.P. Morgan Chase.  The suit is based on common law principles of liability and on the Alien Tort Claims Act, 28 U.S.C. §1350, which grants U.S. courts jurisdiction over certain violations of international law, regardless of where they occur. The complaint contains a significant amount of information on the collaboration of the companies with apartheid.  A copy of the complaint and related material is available on the web site of Cohen, Milstein, Hausfeld & Toll, P.L.L.C.


U.S. Economic Involvement with Apartheid South Africa, compiled by Richard Knight.  This table outlines U.S. economic involvement with South Africa from 1977 through 1993.  It includes figures for the value of U.S. direct investment, bank loans and trade (merchandise exports and imports).  It also includes the number of U.S. parent companies with South African affiliates, the number of South African affiliates of U.S. companies and the number of employees at the South African affiliates of U.S. companies.


Testimony of Richard Knight on the proposed Rules for Anti-Apartheid Classification of Banks and South African Activity of Particular Banks before the New York City Department of Finance (American Committee on Africa, December 19, 1991).


State & Municipal Governments Take Aim at Apartheid by Richard Knight (American Committee on Africa, 1991).  This article includes a comprehensive list of states, counties and cities that took economic action against apartheid.


“Sanctions, Disinvestment, and U.S. Corporations in South Africa” by Richard Knight, Sanctioning Apartheid, Ed. Robert Edgar (Africa World Press, 1990)


Testimony of Richard Knight, Public Hearings Concerning Regulations Governing State Contracts with Companies Doing Business in or with South Africa and Namibia, Commonwealth of Massachusetts (Africa Fund, May 2, 1989).


Testimony of Jennifer Davis, Executive Director, American Committee on Africa, Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives, July 8, 1987.  In the early 1980s U.S. companies paid over a quarter of a billion dollars a year in tax to the apartheid regime in South Africa.  In 1987 Congress adopted the Rangel Amendment to the Budget Reconciliation Act that eliminated the ability of U.S. companies to claim tax credits in the U.S. for taxes paid in South Africa.


Divestment Actions Must Target Franchise and Licensing Agreements As Well as Direct Investment, Public Investment and South Africa, American Committee on Africa, February 1987.  As companies withdrew from South Africa, many continued to do business in South Africa through various non-equity ties such as licensing and franchising.  In response five national organizations issued Guidelines for Divestment.  On behalf of the American Committee on Africa I helped draft and coordinate the Guidelines.


U.S. Computers in South Africa by Richard Knight (Africa Fund, 1986)


Citibank and South Africa, The Africa Fund, September 1986.  Citibank was the largest U.S. lender to apartheid South Africa.  At the time this article was written it had about $800 million in loans outstanding to South Africa, about a quarter of the $3.2 billion in outstanding U.S. bank loans to that country.  Citibank was the only U.S. bank that operated as a commercial bank inside South Africa.


U.S. Banks and South Africa, IBCASA Newsletter No. 2 (International Bank Campaign Against South Africa, Winter 1986/7)


Eastman Kodak withdraws from Apartheid South Africa.  Eastman Kodak announced its withdraw from South Africa in November 1986.  Kodak’s withdrawal was important for several reasons.  First, unlike many companies that continued doing business in South Africa through licensing and franchising agreements, Kodak announced it was ending all sales to the country.  Second, it was clear that its withdrawal was directly related to the threat of loss of business from U.S. state and city governments. 


U.S. Banks Cut Loans Sharply to South Africa by Nicholas D. Kristoff, New York Times, August 3, 1985.


U.S. Banking on South Africa Apartheid by Richard Knight, Liberation News Service, #831, November 20, 1976.


Archives of the American Committee on Africa and The Africa Fund

The archives of the American Committee on Africa and The Africa Fund are located at the Amistad Research Center at Tulane University in New Orleans, Louisiana. Hopefully sometime all the publications if these two organizations will be microfilmed.  I have some of these publications in my personal collection. 


Richard Knight

March 2002


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